The Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology (ISSN: 2161-0681) deals with research on infectious disorders associated with immune system and immunological disorders, infectious diseases, treatment of infectious diseases, infectious medicine, epidemiology, diagnostic tests of infectious diseases, infection control, pathophysiology, clinical pathology , preventive medicine. Clinical Pathology deals with patient care, diagnostic services, novel treatments and research on immune infections.
Chromatography is a process for separating components of a mixture. To get the process started, the mixture is dissolved in a substance called the mobile phase, which carries it through a second substance called the stationary phase.
The different components of the mixture travel through the stationary phase at different speeds, causing them to separate from one another. The nature of the specific mobile and stationary phases determines which substances travel more quickly or slowly, and is how they are separated. These different travel times are termed retention time.
Principles of chromatography
- Chromatography is based on the principle where molecules in mixture applied onto the surface or into the solid, and fluid stationary phase (stable phase) is separating from each other while moving with the aid of a mobile phase.
- The factors effective on this separation process include molecular characteristics related to adsorption (liquid-solid), partition (liquid-solid), and affinity or differences among their molecular weights.
- Because of these differences, some components of the mixture stay longer in the stationary phase, and they move slowly in the chromatography system, while others pass rapidly into the mobile phase, and leave the system faster.
Three components thus form the basis of the chromatography technique.
- Stationary phase: This phase is always composed of a “solid” phase or “a layer of a liquid adsorbed on the surface solid support”.
- Mobile phase: This phase is always composed of “liquid” or a “gaseous component.”
- Separated molecules
The type of interaction between the stationary phase, mobile phase, and substances contained in the mixture is the basic component effective on the separation of molecules from each other.
Types of Chromatography
The twelve types are:
(1) Column Chromatography
(2) Paper Chromatography
(3) Thin Layer Chromatography
(4) Gas Chromatography
(5) High Performance Liquid Chromatography
(6) Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography
(7) Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
(8) Affinity Chromatography
(9) Reversed Phase Chromatography
(10) Two Dimensional Chromatography
(11) Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography and
(12) Counter Current Chromatography.
Application of Chromatography
- To identify and analyse samples for the presence of trace elements or chemicals.
- Separation of compounds based on their molecular weight and element composition.
- Detects the unknown compounds and purity of mixture.
- In drug development.
- In testing water samples and also checks air quality.
- HPLC and GC are very much used for detecting various contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) in pesticides and oils.
- In various life sciences applications.
- In food spoilage and additive detection.
- Determining the nutritional quality of food.
- Forensic Science.
- In forensic pathology and crime scene testing like analysing blood and hair samples of crime place.
Molecular Biology Studies
Various hyphenated techniques in chromatography such as EC-LC-MS are applied in the study of metabolomics and proteomics along with nucleic acid research. HPLC is used in Protein Separation like Insulin Purification, Plasma Fractionation, and Enzyme Purification and also in various departments like Fuel Industry, biotechnology, and biochemical processes.
On the occasion of its 10 years, Successful Journey, Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology decided to provide a partial waiver on its article processing charges to promote quality research from across the nations of the globe to encourage the latest research in the field of Infections, Diseases and Medicine. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology also planning to release a special issue on its new approaches.
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